ip:网络配置工具

xiaohai 2021-06-28 19:55:28 1133人围观 标签: Linux 
简介ip命令是iproute软件包中的一个强大的网络配置工具,用于显示和管理Linux系统的路由、网络设备、策略路由和隧道。Centos7推荐使用ip命令代替传统的ipconfig和route[该命令我们没有进行说明,需要学习的请参考网上资料]命令。
说明

  ip命令是iproute软件包中的一个强大的网络配置工具,用于显示和管理Linux系统的路由、网络设备、策略路由和隧道。Centos7推荐使用ip命令代替传统的ipconfig和route[该命令我们没有进行说明,需要学习的请参考网上资料]命令。

格式

  ip [option] [object(网络对象)] [command]

网络对象
  • link:网设备
  • address:设备的协议地址(IP地址),这里可以简化成:addr或者a
  • addrlabel:协议地址标签管理
  • neighbour:arp或ndisc缓存表
  • route:路由表
  • rule:策略路由表
  • maddress:多播地址
  • mroute:多播路由缓存表
  • tunnel:IP隧道
  • xfrm:IPse协议框架
操作命令

不同的网络对象对应不同的操作命令

网络对象 操作命令
link set(修改设备属性)、show(显示设备属性)
address add(添加协议地址)、del(删除)、flush(清除)、show(查看)
addrlabel add、del、list、flush
neighbour add、change、replace、delete、show、flush
route add、change、replace、delete、show、flush、get
rule add、delete、show、flush
maddress add、delete、show
mroute show
tunnel add、change、delete、show、prl
xfrm state、policy、monitor
常用参数
  • -s:输出更详细的信息
  • -r:显示主机时,不使用IP地址,而使用主机的域名
查看帮助
  • ip help:查看ip命令的帮助
  • ip [object] help:查看网络对象的帮助
示例

1、查看网卡信息

[root@localhost ~]# ip a
1: lo: <LOOPBACK,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 65536 qdisc noqueue state UNKNOWN 
    link/loopback 00:00:00:00:00:00 brd 00:00:00:00:00:00
    inet 127.0.0.1/8 scope host lo
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
    inet6 ::1/128 scope host 
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
2: eno16777736: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast state UP qlen 1000
    link/ether 00:0c:29:1e:d8:26 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
    inet 192.168.71.108/24 brd 192.168.71.255 scope global eno16777736
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
    inet6 fe80::20c:29ff:fe1e:d826/64 scope link 
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever

2、查看网络设备的属性

[root@localhost ~]#  ip link show dev eno16777736
2: eno16777736: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast state UP mode DEFAULT qlen 1000
    link/ether 00:0c:29:1e:d8:26 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff

[root@localhost ~]#  ip -s link show dev eno16777736 #加了一个-s
2: eno16777736: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast state UP mode DEFAULT qlen 1000
    link/ether 00:0c:29:1e:d8:26 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
    RX: bytes  packets  errors  dropped overrun mcast   
    387995     5068     0       0       0       0      
    TX: bytes  packets  errors  dropped carrier collsns 
    302141     2111     0       0       0       0      

[root@localhost ~]#  ip -s -s link show dev eno16777736 #加了两个-s
2: eno16777736: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast state UP mode DEFAULT qlen 1000
    link/ether 00:0c:29:1e:d8:26 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
    RX: bytes  packets  errors  dropped overrun mcast   
    392001     5111     0       0       0       0      
    RX errors: length  crc     frame   fifo    missed
               0        0       0       0       0      
    TX: bytes  packets  errors  dropped carrier collsns 
    305997     2143     0       0       0       0      
    TX errors: aborted fifo    window  heartbeat
               0        0       0       0

3、修改MAC地址

[root@localhost ~]#  ip link show dev eno16777736
2: eno16777736: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast state UP mode DEFAULT qlen 1000
    link/ether 00:0c:29:1e:d8:26 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff

[root@localhost ~]#  ip link set eno16777736 address 00:ac:29:13:11:2a

[root@localhost ~]#  ip link show dev eno16777736
2: eno16777736: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast state UP mode DEFAULT qlen 1000
    link/ether 00:ac:29:13:11:2a brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff

4、添加或删除IP地址

[root@localhost ~]# ip a show eno16777736
2: eno16777736: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast state UP qlen 1000
    link/ether 00:ac:29:13:11:2a brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
    inet 192.168.71.108/24 brd 192.168.71.255 scope global eno16777736
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
    inet6 fe80::20c:29ff:fe1e:d826/64 scope link 
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever

[root@localhost ~]# ip a add 192.168.71.109/24 dev eno16777736#添加IP

[root@localhost ~]# ip a show eno16777736
2: eno16777736: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast state UP qlen 1000
    link/ether 00:ac:29:13:11:2a brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
    inet 192.168.71.108/24 brd 192.168.71.255 scope global eno16777736
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
    inet 192.168.71.109/24 scope global secondary eno16777736
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
    inet6 fe80::20c:29ff:fe1e:d826/64 scope link 
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever

[root@localhost ~]# ip a del 192.168.71.109/24 dev eno16777736 #删除IP
[root@localhost ~]# ip a show eno16777736
2: eno16777736: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast state UP qlen 1000
    link/ether 00:ac:29:13:11:2a brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
    inet 192.168.71.108/24 brd 192.168.71.255 scope global eno16777736
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
    inet6 fe80::20c:29ff:fe1e:d826/64 scope link 
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever

注意:
1、删除网卡的主IP地址,同时会删除该网卡下的所有IP地址
2、删除网卡的辅IP地址,不会影响该网卡的其他IP地址

ip命令的其他用例后续使用了再继续添加…